Bone is the hardest constituent body that serves as a framework that supports and protects the body tissues. The process of formation of new bone tissue and bone destruction occur continuously in the bone. Until around the age of 35 years of new bone formation occurs continuously so that the amount of new bone formed is greater than old bone is destroyed. At about the age of the bones reach maximum strength and density. After the age of 35 years lost more bone material than that formed. The process of bone formation and destruction carried out by two types of bone cells, the osteoblast cells that help the formation of new bone tissue with added calcium, and osteoklast cells that destroy bone tissue and release calcium into the blood. In the process of osteoporosis, osteoclast cells to work more actively than the osteoblast cells. Hormones also affect the process of formation and destruction of bone.
Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by low bone mass due to calcium and bone elements of abnormally reduced so that the bones become brittle, porous and break easily. Osteoporosis is not only a reduction in bone density but also decreased bone strength. In osteoporosis, bone damage faster than the improvements made by the body. Osteoporosis is often referred to as bone loss. The bones that often fracture / broken ie: bone vertebrae, pelvis, leg and ankle forearm.
Osteoporosis is more experienced by the elderly, especially in the age of 70 years and over and in women who have menopausal and has decreased the amount of estrogen. Although osteoporosis can strike men, but in women around the age of 50 years and over the process of bone fragility occurs faster. This is because in addition to having a smaller skeletons than men, women also experience menopausal phase in which the levels of the hormone estrogen that affects bone density decreases.Osteoporosis in women 4 times higher than in males. Osteoporosis in men mostly because of advanced age or alcohol.
Osteoporosis is a disease that can not be known in a short time (silent disease). In the early phase, osteoporosis did not show any symptoms so people do not realize they experienced problems until it became severe and a lot of lost bone mass leading to fractures. Osteoporosis, which occurs in the vertebral column (vertebrae) resulting in patient becomes shorter because the shattered vertebrae, the body also become bent. At about age 70, bone mass back / spine is reduced to one-third resulting in bent and reduced height.
In addition to advanced age and menopause, osteoporosis is influenced by several factors, such as unhealthy lifestyles, such as less active or no exercise, low calcium and vitamin D consumption, smoking and alcoholic beverages, soft drinks, drinking caffeine / coffee Excessive and too many salty foods can increase the risk of osteoporosis. Other risk factors are heredity, skeleton bones are small, too skinny, low estrogen levels in women and low testosterone in men, suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, and women who experience ovarian removal.
Calcium plays an important role in preventing osteoporosis as it is a dominant factor of nutrient intake to bone. Calcium is a mineral that is needed to arrange the bone structure. Adequate calcium intake early on can help strengthen bone mass and reduce the level of loss of bone mass in later years as they age. In old age, calcium is lost from the body greater than that produced calcium. In people with osteoporosis lose about 500 mg of calcium. Based on international standards, the recommended calcium intake is 1000-1500 mg per day for adults. Unfortunately calcium consumption in Indonesia is very low, only about 254 milligrams per day. Research conducted Giji and Food Research Center, MOH, said that approximately 41.7% of Indonesian society have osteoporosis early, which means every 2 people of 5 of Indonesia’s population has a risk of osteoporosis.
The amount of calcium needed by age level, namely:
- Children ages 4-8 years need 800 milligrams of calcium per day
- Ages 9-18 years old need 1300 milligrams (mg) of calcium per day
- Adult women (aged 19-50 years) need 1,000 mg of calcium per day
- Women over 50 years need 1200 mg of calcium per day
- Pregnant or lactating women need 1000-1300 mg of calcium per day
Bone loss can not be cured completely and return the bones like its original state, which can be done is to reduce risk factors with prevention efforts as early as possible through familiarization lifestyle and healthy eating. Setting the food is very important to prevent osteoporosis, ie through consumption of food with balanced nutrition and nutritional needs with elements rich in calcium and low in fat. The following diet and lifestyle can do to prevent osteoporosis:
- Eating foods with balanced nutrition that meets the nutritional needs with elementsrich in fiber, low fat, and rich in calcium (1000 -1500 mg per day). Make sure your dietcontains 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day (if you pre-menopausal) or 1500 milligrams per day (if you are post-menopausal). Avoid supplements derived fromdolomite or bone meal, however, the consumption of calcium should not exceed1,500 milligrams of calcium per day
- Consumption of milk high in calcium and low in fat, yogurt, cheese, broccoli, spinach, canned sardines, oysters, shrimp, small / rebon, anchovies and fish eaten with bones, as well as soybean and processed products like tempeh and tofu as a source of calcium. Soy is especially good for women, because they contain natural estrogens (phytoestrogens) that are needed at the time of menopause. Also consumption beans as a source of phosphorus, foods high in vitamin D such as dark green leafy vegetables. The body should also get enough sunshine in the morning at least 15 minutes as a source of vitamin D, because this vitamin is needed for calcium absorption.
- Reduce sodium, salt, red meat, and salted foods
- Avoid excessive drinking coffee because it can remove excessive calcium. also reduce the soft drink / soft drink because it can inhibit calcium absorption.
- Limit consumption of red meat and salt or salted foods
- Avoid alcohol and cigarettes because it can absorb calcium in the body’s reserves.
- Exposure to the sun (in the morning and afternoon before sunset) helps the formation of vitamin D
- Do also exercise regularly to strengthen bones and muscles.